YOUNG STUDENTSlucky enough to benefit from a science education will likely recognize Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, Galileo Galilei, Charles Darwin, Marie Curie, or Gregor Mendel. But ask them about Georges Lemaître and they’d probably be stumped.Indeed, the man who first proposed that the universe is expanding and formulated the theory of the Big Bang is scarcely recognized by Google. Search for “famous scientists” and scroll through the horizontal list that pops up. Lemaître is nowhere to be seen.

To be fair, there are a number of worthy contenders to science fame, but I argue that Lemaître is truly a cut above the rest. An honest examination of his life and accomplishments should place him next to Einstein as one of the greatest scientists who ever lived.

While the expansion of space appeared to be confirmed by Edwin Hubble’s 1929 observations, Hubble always disagreed with the expanding-universe interpretation of the data. He wrote: “… expanding models are a forced interpretation of the observational results.” (“Effects of Red Shifts on the Distribution of Nebulae” by E. Hubble, Astrophysical Journal, 84, 517, 1936)

It seems to me that the universe is undergoing Topological Extension. The mathematical laws of the universe could be the product of the virtual particles (which are actually quantum fluctuations and energy pulses) filling space-time. Their on-off states could be regarded as binary digits of 1 and 0, i.e. base-2 maths. These could be arranged in the shape of 2D (two-dimensional) Mobius Strips, explaining the curvature of space-time. These strips then follow the rules of maths and combine into four-dimensional Klein bottles long before reaching the scale of subatomic particles, which are also four-dimensional (3 of space, 1 of time). One theory scientists have for the universe’s shape says it is a doughnut. From that, I conclude the type of Klein bottle that Mobius Strips combine into is the figure-8 Klein bottle (because this somewhat resembles the doughnut).

There would be no cosmic expansion but the measurements attributed to expansion would actually measure what I call topological extension from binary digits to Mobius strips to figure-8 Klein bottles to quantum particles to macroscopic forms to astronomical forms to the entire universe throughout time. Is it possible that the extension by mathematics’ topology is, in more of Edwin Hubble’s words in the above paper, “one of the principles of nature that is still unknown to us today”?